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  • MoMA 컴퓨터가 전후 아티스트들에게 끼친 영향 특별전(11/13-4/8)
  • sukie
    Sep 07, 2017
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    • Museum of Modern Art
    • Thinking Machines: Art and Design in the Computer Age
    • November 13, 2017–April 8, 2018
    • MoMA (Floor three, The Philip Johnson Galleries)
    MoMA HIGHLIGHTS THE TRANSFORMATIVE HISTORY AND INFLUENCE OF
    COMPUTERS ON POSTWAR ARTISTS, ARCHITECTS, AND DESIGNERS
    The Exhibition Features Nearly 100 Objects across Mediums, Illustrating Computers’
    Lasting Impact on New Modes of Aesthetics and Artistic Production

    Thinking Machines: Art and Design in the Computer Age

    November 13, 2017–April 8, 2018
    Floor three, The Philip Johnson Galleries

    moma.jpg

    NEW YORK, September 7, 2017— Drawn largely from The Museum of Modern Art's
    collection, Thinking Machines: Art and Design in the Computer Age brings works produced
    using computers and computational thinking together with examples of computer and
    component design. On view from November 13, 2017, through April 8, 2018, the exhibition
    reveals how artists, architects, and designers operating at the vanguard of art and technology
    between 1959 and 1989 deployed computing as a means to reconsider artistic, industrial,
    and economic production. The individuals featured in the exhibition exploited the potential of
    unprecedented technologies by inventing systems wholesale or by partnering with institutions
    and corporations that provided access to unique machines. The exhibition includes work from
    Beryl Korot (American, born 1945), Waldemar Cordeiro (Brazilian, born Italy 1925–1973),
    Vera Molnár (French, born Hungary 1924), John Cage and Lejaren Hiller (American, 1912–
    1992; and American, 1924–1994), Stan VanDerBeek (American, 1927–1984), Alison
    Knowles (American, born 1933), Cedric Price (British, 1934–2003), and Lee Friedlander
    (American, born 1934), alongside Tamiko Thiel (American, born 1957) and others at Thinking
    Machines Corporation, Olivetti, IBM, and Apple Computer. Thinking Machines is organized by
    Sean Anderson, Associate Curator, Department of Architecture and Design, and Giampaolo
    Bianconi, Curatorial Assistant, Department of Media and Performance Art, The Museum of
    Modern Art.
    Advancing crucial conversations about the intersections of art, design, and technology that
    have been discussed and exhibited at the Museum since the 1930s, Thinking Machines
    reframes a strand of aesthetic and cultural relationships that have been synonymous with the
    postwar era. It also traces how computers transformed aesthetic hierarchies and reveals how
    these thinking machines reshaped art making, working life, and social connections.

    Hummingbird and Early Design
    The early computer film Hummingbird (1968), by Charles Csuri (American, born 1922),
    became the first computer-generated artwork to enter the Museum’s collection soon after the
    film's completion. An artist and computer engineer, Csuri produced works that were included 
    in defining exhibitions of computer art in the 1960s, including Cybernetic Serendipity at the
    ICA, London, in 1968. Shown alongside Hummingbird are key examples of computing culture
    from the late 1950s and early 1960s, including a selection of punch cards, an early handdrawn
    plan for a computer chip, and a striking, colorful circuit board for an IBM 305 RAMAC.
    Olivetti and Arte Programmata

    In May 1962, Bruno Munari and Giorgio Soavi organized the exhibition Arte programmata. Arte
    cinetica. Opere moltiplicate. Opera aperta (Programmed art. Kinetic art. Multiplied works.
    Open works) in Milan. Italian artists associated with the Arte Programmata movement,
    including Gianni Colombo (Italian, 1937–1993), Getulio Alviani (Italian, born 1933), and
    Gruppo N, imagined their production as part of a new computational world grounded in
    feedback systems and cybernetic thinking. Their optical and kinetic sculptures rely on the
    programming of a mechanical system in an attempt to produce an “open” work that is
    completed by its encounter with the spectator. Examples in the exhibition include Colombo’s
    kinetic sculpture Pulsating Structuralization (1959) and a poster by pioneering graphic
    designer Enzo Mari (Italian, born 1932).

    Presaging later models of artistic-industrial collaboration, like Experiments in Art and
    Technology (EAT), these artists worked under the aegis of the Olivetti Corporation, accessing
    their advanced technology while purposefully blurring the lines between art, computation,
    and design. The artists of Arte Programmata were engaged with and inspired by Olivetti.
    Included in the exhibition are two devices designed by Mario Bellini (Italian, born 1935) for
    Olivetti, the Programma 101 Electronic Desktop Computer (1965) and the TCV 250 Video
    Display Terminal (1966). These artists were loosely considered the Italian wing of the
    international New Tendencies movement, and participated in exhibitions organized in Zagreb
    between 1961 and 1973 that were extremely influential in the development of technological,
    concrete, and constructive art.

    Conceptual Computation
    The rise of computer technology influenced a broad range of artistic practices as artists
    used—or sought to use—computers to advance their own aesthetic goals. John Cage’s
    collaboration with Lejaren Hiller, HPSCHD (1967), was produced using the resources of the
    University of Illinois at Champagne-Urbana. Stan VanDerBeek created a series of influential
    computer films with Ken Knowlton (American, born 1931) at Bell Labs in New Jersey. His
    Poemfield No. 1 (1967) will be shown alongside archival papers related to its production.
    Similarly, Allison Knowles’s computerized poem House of Dust (1967) was created with
    composer James Tenney, whose previous residency at Bell Labs granted him knowledge of
    the FORTRAN programming language.

    Computers also impacted artists who could not, or did not, work directly with emerging
    technologies. Channa Horowitz (American, 1932–2013) created a graphic system of
    notation she called Sonakinatography (meaning sound, motion, notation), after her proposal
    for a large kinetic sculpture went unrealized for the influential 1971 exhibition Art and
    Technology at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Hanne Darboven’s (German, 1941–
    2009) numerical and procedural drawings share a basis with contemporaneous data-based
    artworks, and raise important questions about the overlap between art made with computers
    and Conceptual art. And the wide-ranging philosophical concerns of Agnes Denes
    (Hungarian, born 1938) roots the production of art in a lineage of systems thinking and
    technological possibilities that influenced thinkers including R. Buckminster Fuller.

    Text and Commentary
    At the center of the exhibition is Beryl Korot’s landmark video installation Text and
    Commentary (1976–77), a five-channel video of Korot weaving at a loom, which is viewed in
    an installation including the four resulting weavings alongside intricate drawings and
    mimeographs with which Korot designed and documented the patterns for the weavings.
    Korot became interested in weaving in the 1970s as a historical form of women’s work, and in
    the design and practice of weaving as an early way of transmitting complex information,
    referring to the loom as “the first computer on the face of the earth.” In 1978, Korot delivered
    a lecture at MoMA titled “Video and the Loom,” in which she positioned her thinking about the
    relationship between the new mediums of video and computation and the medium of weaving.
    Korot’s observations about computation and information—which is translated into a
    purposefully old media technology, weavings produced by a loom—emphasizes the extent to
    which early computing influenced artists in ways that are more complex than commonly
    assumed. Numerous thinkers since Korot have continued to emphasize the resonance
    between coding and weaving, and her practice has only become more influential since its
    initial exhibition in the 1970s.

    Korot has worked with video since the early 1970s and was a member of the video collective
    Raindance and an editor of the journal Radical Software, an important venue for early
    adherents to video, cybernetic thinking, and experimental computing. Viewing issues of
    Radical Software from the early 1970s reveals the substantial overlap between these fields.
    Their mutual influence across the works in the exhibition resonates with Korot’s pivotal
    installation.

    Machine Drawings
    Artists significantly made use of the computer’s potential to generate images alongside the
    ink-jet plotter and printer developed in the 1960s to effectively print them. Brazilian artist
    Waldemar Cordeiro was among the first established Brazilian artists to turn to the computer
    as a way of producing images, and his large scale computer-generated drawing Gente Ampli*2
    (1972) will be on view in the exhibition. Other artists including Alan Saret (American, born
    1944) experimented with the nature of drawing using the plotter.
    One of the most notable artists associated with machine drawings is Vera Molnár (Hungarian,
    1934), who has worked steadily with computation since the late 1960s. She was a founder of
    the Paris-based Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel (Visual Art Research Group), which
    included artists like François Morellet and Julio Le Parc. Before accessing the computer,
    Molnár worked with what she called a “machine imaginaire,” a set of rules and procedures she
    created to produce drawings by hand that would mimic the inputs and constraints of a
    computer. She continues to work with the computer and plotter today. The exhibition
    features key works by Molnár from the Anne and Michael Spalter Digital Art Collection.

    Cedric Price’s Generator Project
    Architects also employed computational technologies to reconfigure human communities and
    architectures. One such example is Price’s ambitious Generator Project (1978–80), an early
    investigation into the use of artificially intelligent systems to inform an architecture designed
    with no specific program, but only a desired end effect, in mind. Commissioned by Howard
    Gilman for a site at the Gilman Paper Corporation's White Oak Plantation in Florida, the
    project was intended to define a process and means for designing a new facility to house
    dance performances, theater, and visiting artists. Throughout Price’s storied career, an
    exploration of new spatial typologies in architecture and urbanism affected the creation of
    flexible conditions previously thought impossible within a socially beneficial environment.
    Generator was conceived as participatory yet critical, and was intended to operate by means
    of a central computer with which a visitor might combine any of 150 of the Generator's fourby-four
    meter, fully serviced, air-conditioned cubes—along with walls, screens, gangways,
    and communications channels—into a structure. The computer would encourage the visitor to
    continually refine and improve his or her design, and was to be programmed to make
    unsolicited alterations should the framework remain static. Although Price's scheme to
    provide a catalytic environment dedicated to the arts was never built, the expansive series
    shown here of computer-generated drawings, sketches, and other ephemera from the
    Generator project suggests a process for thinking about the spaces in which we live as much
    as how technologies defined by us order the world.

    Computers and Society
    Beyond its impact on artists and art making, the exhibition also follows a history of the
    computer’s increasing integration into society. Key holdings from MoMA’s Department of
    Architecture and Design represent this cultural shift, including the first Apple Macintosh
    computers, a computer designed by the artist Richard Hamilton (British, 1922–2011), the
    DIAB DS-101 Computer (1985–89), and the CM-2 Supercomputer (1987) produced by
    Thinking Machines Corporation in collaboration with artist and designer Tamiko Thiel. The
    Hamilton-designed DIAB DS-101 solidifies the influence of computer technology on a
    generation of international artists revolving around Pop art, and the CM-2 is a key example of
    a consumer-grade supercomputer known for its combination of innovative design and
    industrial computing power. Together, these objects represent the wide range of computer
    design in the 1980s.

    Alongside these objects are selections from the photographer Lee Friedlander’s At Work
    series of social documentary photographs from the mid-1980s, which were shot along the
    Route 128 corridor in Massachusetts and at factories in the American Midwest. These images
    depict the space of the office as well as workers engaged at computer terminals offering
    parallels to the prevalence of computing technology today. Computers' transformation of the
    act of work is an achievement at least equal to their influence on artists and art making, and
    Friedlander, known for his attention to America's changing social landscape, reveals this
    reality with characteristic wit. 
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  • Thinking Machines: Art and Design in the Computer Age
  • November 13, 2017–April 8, 2018
  • MoMA (Floor three, The Philip Johnson Galleries)
  • MoMA HIGHLIGHTS THE TRANSFORMATIVE HISTORY AND INFLUENCE OF COMPUTERS ON POSTWAR ARTISTS, ARCHITECTS, AND DESIGNERS The Exhibition Features Nearly 100 Objects across Mediums, Illustrating Computers’ Lasting Impact on New Modes of Aesthetics and Artistic Production Thinking Machines: Art and Design in...
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